- How important are letters of recommendation?
- How many letters of recommendation do I need?
- Whom should I ask for letters of recommendation?
- How do I approach potential letter writers?
- When should I approach letter writers? What if I plan to take some time off before I go to graduate school?
- How can I go about getting good letters of recommendation?
- What information do my letter writers need to write good letters?
- My GSI really knows me; can I use their letter?
- Do graduate schools care if letters are confidential or not?
Letters of recommendation are required for almost every graduate school application and are a very important part of the application process. Usually grades and test scores factor in most heavily; however, your letters of recommendation could be the deciding factor in the admission process.
Strong letters of recommendation can strengthen your application and if there are deficiencies in your application, they can help to outweigh them.
Each institution will let you know how many letters it requires. Generally, you will be asked for three letters. We recommend that you send only the amount of letters requested. Admissions committees do not have enough time to read extra credentials.
The best letter writers are those that know you well and can provide an evaluation of your ability to perform and succeed at the graduate level.
If you are planning to attend graduate school, take every opportunity to get to know and talk with your professors; go to office hours, ask questions in class, seek advice about your career, do independent research or study with a professor whose recommendation you may want.
Graduate and professional school admissions people tell us the following make the best letter writers:
First, make a list of professors and/or supervisors who will be your best advocates. Then, set up an appointment to discuss your request in person. Do not make the request via email. Be prepared to articulate your interest and reasons for attending graduate school.
Letters of recommendation are written strictly on a voluntary basis; a faculty member or employer may decline to write them. The best approach is to ask potential writers if they are willing to write you a strong letter. If you sense reluctance or the answer is no, ask someone else.
Professors and supervisors want to help you and are pleased to write on your behalf; however, they are usually involved in many activities. Faculty are especially busy during the months of November and December.
Be considerate and courteous of your letter writers' time and workload, and approach them at least two months in advance of your request.
A good time to approach letter writers is early fall of your senior year if you plan to attend graduate school immediately following graduation. If you ask for letters before this time, ask during the school year, sometimes professors are hard to find in the summer.
If you plan to take some time off before going to graduate school, do not wait until you want to apply to graduate school to ask for letters. Your professors could be on sabbatical, or you may not be fresh in their minds anymore.
Ask professors for a "general" letter of recommendation before you leave Texas Wesleyan and place their letters in a safe place, like Career Services.When you are ready to apply to graduate school, contact professors again, and ask them to update your letters.
Since your best letters will come from those who know you, make an effort to get to know your professors and/or supervisors.
A few ways you can do this are to speak up in class, select courses with small class sizes, take more than one class from a professor, do research for a professor, take on optional projects (e.g., write an honor thesis or start an outreach program at work), and regularly attend office hours.
The best strategy you can use to get a good letter of recommendation, particularly if a professor does not have a long acquaintance with you, is to provide your letter writer with ample information about you.
This way, you will get a letter that includes concrete details about you, instead of a letter that contains only your grade or class rank, which is of limited value.
You can help your letter writers write enlightening letters by giving each of them a portfolio that includes:
Yes, you can, but as a general rule, it is better to have letters written by professors rather than GSI's. The reason for the "more senior, the better" stance is that by virtue of experience the older person may be in a better position to evaluate the student and to compare the applicant to current and previous classes of students.
GSI's often write fine letters and frequently write parts of all of letters which professors sign or co-sign. Having a GSI's letter co-signed by a professor adds to its strength, especially if the professor can add useful comments.
It is better to have a strong letter from a GSI than a letter from a professor that says little or nothing. But, the temptation to feel that since it often is easier to get to know a GSI than a professor so it is perfectly acceptable to settle for GSI letters.
Some graduate schools specifically state that they will only accept letters from professors, not lecturers or graduate students.
Other admissions officers have told Career Services that they prefer letters that provide new insight on the applicant, and with this in mind may prefer the more specific letter, even if it is from a GSI.
If you must get a letter from a GSI, strategize with the GSI to have them draft a letter of evaluation, then forward it to the professor, using the pronoun "we" instead of "I." For example, they could write:
"We saw Mr. Jones struggle before the midterm and we were impressed with his tenacity and capacity to master the material."
Then, the letter can be signed by two people on the same line at the bottom of the page.
In addition, sometimes GSI's are willing to provide some written insight or notes to the letter writer so that the letter can be written or finished and signed solely by the faculty member.
You will need to give your portfolio to both the GSI and the professor and see how they want to do business.
In general, graduate programs prefer confidential letters. Admissions officials say that it displays more confidence on the part of the applicant if letters are "confidential" (meaning you, the applicant cannot see the letter).
You should only request letters of evaluation from individuals you are confident will give insight into you and your abilities and will be an advocate for you.